Elementary Mathematics

4th Grade Unit 6 Overview and Standards


Use these links to access resources for this unit.


Before You Begin This Unit...
  Unit at a Glance

This is the only Grade 4 fractions unit, yet it comprises 27%–32% of the end of year math assessment. It is important to allow students to build and view representations of fractions and decimals in this unit to help them develop mental images of these numbers. From third grade, students are building on an understanding that the denominator of a fraction indicates the number equal parts into which a whole is divided, and the numerator indicates how many of those parts are being considered. Students should have prerequisite knowledge that the more parts you have, the smaller the parts will be.

    Students continue to focus on the meaning of fractions as equal parts of a whole (thing, area, group). Beyond their previous experience, students are asked to visualize fractions that are greater than one and comprehend that the same fraction can represent different quantities (ex. ¼ of a basketball court compared to ¼ of a sandwich). Using a number line, mental images of fractions, and relationships of fractions to landmarks all work to build the concept of equivalent fractions. Understanding multiplicative identity is also important in this unit (meaning that multiplying by 1 whole allows you to make equivalent fractions - 3/3, 4/4, 5/5, etc.- without changing the value of the number).

    Experiences with money from third grade form the foundation for decimals in this unit. Representing decimal fractions on a rectangle divided into tenths and hundredths (ex. graph paper) helps to develop visual images of the relationships of these numbers. The major focus of this unit is on solidifying students’ understanding of the meaning, order, and equivalencies of fractions and decimals.

Suggested Dates:
January 12- March 6

Estimated Duration:
30  Days

*Investigation 1:
8 lessons (Including 1.8A)

*Investigation 2:
7 lessons (Including 2.7A)

Line Plot Lessons

*Investigation 3A:
3 lessons (Multiplying Fractions)

3 Lessons:  More practice multiplying fractions -(5 days)

*Investigation 3: 
7 Lessons

Use these additional Real World addition and subtracting fractions lessons as a supplement, if you are looking for something extra.


Click here to access lesson plans focused on problem solving with 4NF.1 and 4NF.2. Once you get to the site, click download.

 Standards Addressed in the Unit

Link to the CCSS Unpacking Document- Updated Sept. '15

4.NF.1 Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.

4.NF.2 Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

4.NF.3 Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b.
     a. Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.  

  b. Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

     c. Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.

      d. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

4.NF.4 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.

        a. Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b.

        b. Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number.

        c. Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

4.NF.5 Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100.

4.NF.6 Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100.

4.NF.7 Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g.,by using a visual model.