Elementary Mathematics
Kindergarten Unit 6: How Many Do You Have?

Unit at a Glance

Suggested Dates:
March 12- May 8

*Before beginning unit 6, teach the following DPI lessons: 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 over 5 days.

DPI Addition and Subtraction Unit

Estimated Duration: 36 days
*Investigation 1: 7 lessons *Investigation 2: 6 lessons *Investigation 3: 7 lessons
*Investigation 4: 6 lessons

NOTE: Since this unit builds on unit 4, and is taught after the DPI unit, all students would benefit from enrichment. Also, use landmark numbers of 10, 12, 15, 20 rather than 6, 8, 10.

Dino Math (+ and -) Go to this link and type in "Dino Math"

Tools for Teachers

Numbers in the Teens song (They start with a 1!!!!) song  K.CC.1,  K.CC.2, K.CC.3

When You Subtract With a Pirate (math song for kids)  K.OA.1, K.OA.2, K.OA.3, K.OA.4, K.OA.5

Note: Difference does not always mean subtract.

Adding and Subtracting Song- (Add means put together... Subtract means take away!) K.OA.1, K.OA.2, K.OA.3, K.OA.4, K.OA.5

Math Monsters
: The Making of Tens
  K.CC.4 a, b; K.CC.5

How Many Under the Shell? Players choose a number of shells to play with. The game counts out the shells and then an octopus hides some. The game counts how many are showing, and players use that information to determine how many are hidden. K.OA.1, K.OA.2, K.OA.3, K.OA.4, K.OA.5

Save the Whale. Given two labeled pipes of 10, side by side, the player has to complete the partially filled in one (e.g. if it has 6 links, the player needs to drag the one with 4 links up) to save the whale. K.OA.1, K.OA.2, K.OA.3, K.OA.4, K.OA.5

Encourage your student to use Ten Frames to count and visualize number.

Fuel The Brain Educational Resources and Games organized by common core standard

Ongoing Assessment Unit 6

Choice Board Unit 6

DPI Unit

Look for the End of Unit Assessment rubric

K-5 Unpacking document for standards for mathematical practice

Kindergarten at a glance document

Great wiki from Howard County Public School System

Kindergarten Investigations Data Sheet

K Math Vocabulary

Investigations Vocabulary

K Story Problem Routine Poster

Investigations K-2 Literature List

Progression for choosing numbers for tasks

*Remember to upload files to share with others, or locate files to use in your classroom, on the Elementary Math Wiki. Be sure to join discussion posts with other colleagues to ask questions, answer questions, and discuss math.

During teaching:

Do students recognize the place value structure of two-digit numbers as they create teen numbers made of a unit of 10 and some leftover ones? (MP 7)

During planning:

 “How well do our student’s model situations with addition equations?” 
(MP 4)

“How can I further support their modeling and problem solving?”
(MP 1, MP 4)



The importance of TEN! 
Read "Anchoring to 5 and Ten" on page 9 of this article and discuss the following with your team:  How are our students using 5 and ten to count, subitize, and make sense of quantities?

How can you help students to verbalize algebraic thinking? Read “Algebra Connections in this Unit” (page 18) and discuss with your team. 

Is it too early to introduce Kindergarteners to standard math notation?  Read “Introducing Notation in Kindergarten” (page 163).  Discuss how students can model with mathematics (MP4).

How can I assess my students’ progress in addition? Read “Assessing Addition” (page 168) and discuss with your team prior to administering the end of unit assessment.

What strategies should I observe students using when they solve story problems about combining?  Read “Three Approaches to Story Problems in Kindergarten” (page 174) during planning to preview possible strategies.

K Model 5 Mathematics - Application Example

K Model 5 Mathematics - Example of Instruction

K Mathematics - Double 10-Frame

K Mathematics - Counting Sticks

Plan for the SMPs:

 “How well do our student’s model situations with addition equations?” 
(MP 4)

“How can I further support their modeling and problem solving?”
(MP 1, MP 4)


Suggestions for students who are struggling...

Arrangements:  allow students to work with a partner and describe their arrangements to each other

Collect 15 Together: use a Fifteen-frame

Inventory Bags/Double Compare/Build and Remove: pull a small group of students

Measuring Ourselves: us a tape measure to assist when measuring and counting large numbers

How Many Balls: use the story problem routine

Five Crayons in All: act out the story using real red and blue crayons and/or start with 3 crayons

Combinations: use 2 color manipulatives to create totals of 6 and then select the corresponding primary number cards

Suggestions for students who fully understand...

It is a great idea for teachers to make a model or representation of how the investigations games are played. This could be a picture of the game with all materials or written directions in “kid friendly” words. This will allow students or other adults to help students when they are in the math centers.

Six Tiles in All: use 10

Toss the Chips: use a set number 10, 12, 15

Five through Ten Tiles: may use multiple addends

Measuring Ourselves: measure height

Roll and Record 3: go up to 12, write the combination inside the boxes

Double Compare: record work in T-chart using plus and equal signs, circle the greater

Story Problems: use unknowns in different places

How Many Balls: unknowns

Total of Ten: use 2 colors of cubes to visualize combinations

Words you should hear students use in Mathematical Conversations...

Ask students to retell story problems before thinking about how to solve them. Encourage students to discuss what is happening, and whether there will be more or less at the end of the story.

Pairs Check:  One partner solves a word problem while the other coaches.  Then they switch roles.  After every two problems pairs check their answers with another pair and celebrate.

Common Core State Standards In This Unit

Link to Unpacking Document

Work with numbers 11-19 to gain foundation for place value K.NBT.1

K.CC.1 Count to 100 by ones and by tens.

K.CC.2 Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).

K.CC.3 Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

K.CC.4 Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

K.CC.4a  When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.

K.CC.4b  Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.

K.CC.5  Count to answer “how many?” questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1–20, count out that many objects.

K.CC.6  Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies.

K.CC.7 Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals.

K.OA.1 Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings1, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.

K.OA.2 Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

K.OA.3 Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).

K.OA.4 For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.

K.OA.5 Fluently add and subtract within 5.

K.NBT.1 Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (such as 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.

K.MD.1 Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object.

K.MD.3  Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.


Family Letter:
Make copies of C8-C9, Family Letter, as a replacement for M3-M4, Family Letter.

During activities in which students work with writing equations, encourage them to explain what the equation means.  For example, 3 + 2 = 5 could be “a group of 3 is joined with a group of 2 and then I end up with 5.” (K.OA.1)

Rote count to as high as possible.  End of year goal: 100. (K.CC.1)

Through discussions, help students to distinguish between the actions of addition and subtraction as joining and separating quantities, respectively. (K.OA.1)

Explicitly help students to think about the different ways to decompose numbers between 5 and 10. (K.OA.3)

Incorporate opportunities for students to state what number needs to be added to a given number to make a set of 10. (K.OA.4)

Fluently add and subtract within 5. Fluency means accuracy, efficiency, and flexibly – see the DPI Unpacking document. (K.OA.5)

As students are working with these activities, encourage them to count on. For example, if students are playing Collect 15 and they already have 9 and are adding 3, “can you start at 9 and count on?”

For numbers between 11-19, encourage students to explore and communicate about the idea that they have 1 group of 10 and some left over ones.  For example, when playing Collect 15 together, when students have 12, they have a group of 10 and 2 left over ones. (K.NBT.1)

Incorporate opportunities for students to classify objects and count the number of objects in each category. (K.MD.3)


Include Result Unknown, Total Unknown, and Addend Unknown story problems. Glossary, Table 1 in the Unpacking document has examples of these. (K.OA.2) 

Encourage students to count on when playing Roll and Record and Double Compare. 


Extend the work with crayon puzzles to combinations of 7, 8, 9, and 10. (K.OA.3)

For numbers between 11-19, encourage students to explore and communicate about the idea that they have 1 group of 10 and some left over ones. For example, when playing Collect 15 together, when students have 12, they have a group of 10 and 2 left over ones. (K.NBT.1)

Incorporate opportunities for students to state what number needs to be added to a given number to make a set of 10. (K.OA.4)

Develop strategies for counting accurately and compare quantities. 
Use a number line as an alternative representation while counting. K.CC.1; K.CC.4 a, b; K.CC.5; K.CC.6

Use calendar for keeping track of time and develop strategies for counting accurately.  K.CC.2; K.CC.4 a, b; K.CC.5

Incorporate questions such as what number/month comes before/after _? K.CC.2

Add a word problem that students can work out in their math journals. K.OA.1

Sing songs that practice counting by 2s, 5s, and 10s. K.CC.1

Write a number sentence on the board, students write a word problem and solve it. K.OA.1 and 2
Today's Question

Collect, count, represent, describe, and compare data.K.CC.2, K.CC.4abc, 5, 6, 7

Use multiple ways to represent the data ex. names, tally marks and then count to tell “how many?” K.CC.5

Add a third column of data to compare ex. Would you rather be a monkey, elephant or tiger? K.CC.3 and 6

Represent the data as a graph and compare. K.CC.3 and 6

Estimate and then count the number in each set of data.  K.CC.3 and 6
Patterns on the Pocket Chart

Determine what comes next in a generating pattern; describe repeating patterns.

Identify the units in the pattern. Make another representation of the pattern ex. using numbers.

Show the first 8-10 units of a pattern. Predict what the 14 pattern piece will be.